In addition to acting on the brain, CBD influences many body processes. That’s due to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which was discovered in the 1990s, after scientists started investigating why pot produces a high. Although much less well-known than the cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the ECS is critical. “The ECS helps us eat, sleep, relax, forget what we don’t need to remember, and protect our bodies from harm,” Marcu says. There are more ECS receptors in the brain than there are for opioids or serotonin, plus others in the intestines, liver, pancreas, ovaries, bone cells, and elsewhere.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC 3481531. PMID 23108553.
Before purchasing any CBD product in these states (aside from the 8 mentioned above) you must have a medical prescription issued by a certified medical doctor. Each state has a particular concentration of THC it allows to be present in a CBD product, with the percentage ranging from 0.3% — 8%. (See details in table 1.1 below). Even though the legal situation seems to be shifting in a positive direction, if you are in any of these states, it is very important to be aware of the state’s laws towards CBD.
In general, the preparation methods for unregulated cannabis oil are relatively simple. They do not entail highly specialised equipment, and use easily accessible solvents such as petroleum ether, naphtha, alcohol and olive oil. For this reason, people who have access to cannabis plant material, from either legal or illegal sources, may prepare it at home by themselves.
Women's College Hospital is specifically dedicated to women's health in Canada. This hospital is located in downtown Toronto where there are several locations available for specific medical conditions. WCH is an organization that helps educate women on mental illness due to its specialization with women and mental health. The organization helps women who have symptoms of mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause. They also focus on psychological issues, abuse, neglect and mental health issues from various medications.[116]
Following the success of various pilot programs made possible by the 2014 Farm Bill, hemp is now widely accepted by the public and most lawmakers. In 2018, the US Senate introduced The Hemp Farming Act in its version of The 2018 Farm Bill. Among other things, the act sought to make hemp an agricultural commodity, give states the power to oversee hemp production, and take away the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) authority over hemp.
Understanding CBD’s analgesic, or pain-relieving, interactions with the ECS can shed light on CBD’s other interactions and effects. Importantly, the ECS participates in our bodies’ pain processing, but when CBD is introduced to our ECS, it stops the body from absorbing a pain-regulating compound known as anandamide — one of our body’s’ own natural cannabinoid molecules. Inhibiting the absorption of this compound shunts excess quantities into the bloodstream that in turn reduces pain. One study has revealed that CBD targets alpha-3 (α3) glycine receptors to suppress chronic pain and inflammation associated with dysfunctional glycine receptors, which are an important target for pain processing in the spine. In both humans and animal models, CBD has been shown to have a variety of anti-inflammatory properties.
A: No, you will not fail a drug test. All our Zatural products are 3rd party tested to ensure that no THC is present in the oil. We only sell products that register as ND (Not Detected) or 0. Most drug tests are testing for THC levels. However, cheaper drug testing may be testing a wider variety of cannabinoids as they may not be specific enough to test for THC only. It is always a good idea to discuss with your employer or whomever before hand and explain that you are considering taking Hemp Oil or CBD oil. We can provide the tests showing there is no THC present.
Much of that projected growth is coming from CBD’s newly minted status as a health and wellness product, where it’s treated as a lifestyle oil that relieves pain, fights inflammation and provides consumers with a general sense of well-being, all without the “high” effects that can come with CBD’s sister extract, THC. Until recently, cannabis was looked at as medicinal- or adult-use. With CBD, a third cannabis category — wellness — is emerging. 

Our supplements are derived from industrial hemp, not to be confused with marijuana. Industrial hemp is a legal plant from which many popular foods are harvested. To create our products, we extract a full spectrum of compounds from the hemp plant. This full spectrum contains a stunningly varied array of phyto-cannabinoids, including CBD, CBC, CBG, CBN, and much more. Our extracts contain less than 0.3% concentration of THC, the component from Cannabis sativa L. that causes a high.


Customers should always request third party lab results that test for potency, pesticides, residual solvents, and mycotoxins of the CBD hemp oil. If a company is reluctant to share these results with you, it should automatically be a red flag and indicate that they have something to hide. We’ve done the work and checked if these brands offer those tests to their customers.
The 2004 WHO report "Prevention of Mental Disorders" stated that "Prevention of these disorders is obviously one of the most effective ways to reduce the [disease] burden."[91] The 2011 European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on prevention of mental disorders states "There is considerable evidence that various psychiatric conditions can be prevented through the implementation of effective evidence-based interventions."[92] A 2011 UK Department of Health report on the economic case for mental health promotion and mental illness prevention found that "many interventions are outstandingly good value for money, low in cost and often become self-financing over time, saving public expenditure".[93] In 2016, the National Institute of Mental Health re-affirmed prevention as a research priority area.[94]
Although THC is best known for its mind-altering euphoria, it too has important medical benefits. There’s some overlap in what CBD and THC can treat, but THC is particularly effective in relieving nausea, appetite loss, insomnia, among other symptoms. Many patients find that a balance of CBD and THC offers the best symptom relief as the two work together synergistically.
The legality of CBD in the US varies from state to state, but at the federal level, CBD is mysteriously classified as a Schedule I drug despite its sourcing. According to the federal government, Schedule I drugs are substances or chemicals with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Other Schedule I drugs include heroin, LSD, marijuana, and ecstasy. However, CBD can be purchased as a dietary supplement throughout the country despite the FDA’s official stance that CBD isn’t a supplement. The landscape of CBD legality in the US is exactly as confusing as it reads; that squirrely, perplexing itch at the back of your brain is cognitive dissonance, and it’s an entirely normal reaction.
Hemp being federally legal would be huge for the CBD industry, as CBD oil made from hemp extract (a plant that has very low amounts of THC) would be legal. A new, more available form of CBD would also allow for more research on the subject of cannabidiol, and perhaps the entire marijuana plant. More research brings the potential of coming closer to full legalization.
Yeah you are incorrect. Hemp cultivation is covered in the 2015 Farm Act. And is regulated by a states Dept. of Agriculture. Farmers can get licenses in states that have adopted the guidelines. There are currently in the Summer of 2017 thousands of acres of Federally LEGAL Hemp being grown across the country. Here is a link so you can read all about it… http://nationalhempassociation.org/
Under federal law, cannabis (from which both CBD and marijuana are derived) is illegal everywhere, although the laws against it aren’t generally enforced in states that have legalized marijuana. Some manufacturers claim that CBD culled from legally imported industrial hemp, which has little to no THC, is fine to ship across the U.S., but many experts disagree, noting that because hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, cannabis sativa, all CBD falls under the DEA’s Schedule 1 designation. “This creative interpretation of the law runs afoul of reality,” says the Brookings Institution, a Washington, DC, think tank.
Such approaches, along with cross-cultural and "heretical" psychologies centered on alternative cultural and ethnic and race-based identities and experiences, stand in contrast to the mainstream psychiatric community's alleged avoidance of any explicit involvement with either morality or culture.[154] In many countries there are attempts to challenge perceived prejudice against minority groups, including alleged institutional racism within psychiatric services.[155] There are also ongoing attempts to improve professional cross cultural sensitivity.
Arguments for hemp claim that on a molecular level, CBD is identical regardless of the source. Furthermore, prominent hemp-derived CBD producers, such as Medical Marijuana Inc., dispute the claims described above, asserting that their hemp is grown without harmful pesticides and produces cannabinoids that are just as effective at treating medical conditions.
In 1961, the Joint Commission on Mental Health published a report called Action for Mental Health, whose goal was for community clinic care to take on the burden of prevention and early intervention of the mental illness, therefore to leave space in the hospitals for severe and chronic patients. The court started to rule in favor of the patients' will on whether they should be forced to treatment. By 1977, 650 community mental health centers were built to cover 43 percent of the population and serve 1.9 million individuals a year, and the lengths of treatment decreased from 6 months to only 23 days.[130] However, issues still existed. Due to inflation, especially in the 1970s, the community nursing homes received less money to support the care and treatment provided. Fewer than half of the planned centers were created, and new methods did not fully replace the old approaches to carry out its full capacity of treating power.[130] Besides, the community helping system was not fully established to support the patients' housing, vocational opportunities, income supports, and other benefits.[125] Many patients returned to welfare and criminal justice institutions, and more became homeless. The movement of deinstitutionalization was facing great challenges.[131]
People looking to buy CBD creams will find the most effective and aromatic CBD lotions at Green Roads World. In order to produce the highest quality CBD muscle rub available on the market, Green Roads obtains CBD from US-grown hemp using CO2 supercritical extraction. CBD topicals are highly effective because CBD tends to remain in the application area when applied topically, as opposed to sublingual or edible products that enter the bloodstream and diffuse throughout the body. Green Roads CBD Pain Cream is a unique and potent CBD product, artfully crafted by a licensed pharmacist with more than twenty years of compounding experience.
Pure undiluted cannabis essential oil is a green concentrated, sticky, resinous substance that is considered highly volatile. Its components are very powerful, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other highly active organic compounds. It is extracted by steam distillation from the flowers and upper leaves of cannabis plants, which are in the Cannabis genus. The essential oil is primarily made and distributed from France and various other European countries, but its exportation is somewhat limited by, as mentioned above, the legal ramifications of what cannabis essential oil is derived from.
If you’re looking into CBD oil for sale, our NEW high potency full spectrum CBD oil is exactly what your body ordered. This hemp oil comes more dominant and stronger than our regular CBD oil online products and provides even faster relief. This high volume boost of potency is available in 500 mg and 1000 mg of cannabinoids, and you will quickly realize why sometimes less is more. Supply your overall mental and physical health with a CBD upgrade. This CBD oil is the same great quality you have come to expect from Kats Botanicals, but with an extra kick. Our high potency full spectrum hemp oil is made with pesticide free, non-GMO industrial hemp oil, extracted from the mature stalks and stems of the hemp plant.
So happy with this purchase! I’ve tried many CBD products from various companies over the past 2 years with mixed and inconsistent results. I must say the taste and quality of Kats CBD is absolutely second to none. I have only been using this product for about a week but already I am able to go about my day feeling much more focused and much more at peace. Would absolutely make this purchase again and refer it to anyone interested in learning more about natural health.
There are two main types of receptors in the ECS: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are primarily located in the central nervous system and brains of mammals, and CB2 are generally found in the peripheral nervous system. There are two main cannabinoids mammals produce- 2AG and Anandamide (named after the Sanskrit term “Ananda,” which translates to “peace”).

In the meantime, there’s virtually no way for consumers to feel confident about what or how much they’re taking when they buy a CBD cookie, and dosage has a big impact on what we know about CBD’s effects so far. How transparent a bakery or coffee shop decides to be about its sourcing and dosing is completely up to them. “It’s actually really hard to get pure CBD. It’s really expensive, and there’s a limited number of high-grade producers across the world,” Blessing says. “If I’m a coffee company that’s coming onto the scene and I want to make some money, I don’t really want to put a lot of stuff in it.”


People of diverse cultures and backgrounds may express mental health conditions differently. For example, some are more likely to come to a health care professional with complaints of physical symptoms that are caused by a mental health condition. Some cultures view and describe mental health conditions in different ways from most doctors in the U.S.
CBD oil sourced from hemp is legal all across the U.S when sold as a dietary supplement. Our full-spectrum CBD oil products, when taken daily, add CBD, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other trace cannabinoids, to your healthy diet. Try one of these healthy recipes for easily adding CBD into your meals.

Irie Hemp Company are sourcing their base extract from whole plant organic Oregon grown, full spectrum high CBD hemp varietals grown specifically for CBD extraction. The farm they are sourcing from in Oregon, is growing hemp under the Oregon Department of Agriculture hemp program and this hemp is being grown SPECIFICALLY for high CBD concentrations. The resultant whole plant extract is a blend of the buds and leaves of the hemp plant, rich in natural phytocannabinoids and terpenes.
The Heartfulness meditation program has proven to show significant improvements in the state of mind of health-care professionals.[81] A study posted on the US National Library of Medicine showed that these professionals of varied stress levels were able to improve their conditions after this meditation program was conducted. They benefited in aspects of burnouts and emotional wellness.
According to the U.K. surgeon general (1999), mental health is the successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and providing the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity. The term mental illness refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders—health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with distress or impaired functioning.[5]

Although delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (known as THC) is the primary psychoactive ingredient, other known compounds with biologic activity are cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, tetrahydrocannabivarin and delta-8-THC. Cannabidiol (CBD) is thought to have significant pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory activity without the psychoactive effect of delta-9-THC. (2)


Clinical conceptions of mental illness also overlap with personal and cultural values in the domain of morality, so much so that it is sometimes argued that separating the two is impossible without fundamentally redefining the essence of being a particular person in a society.[149] In clinical psychiatry, persistent distress and disability indicate an internal disorder requiring treatment; but in another context, that same distress and disability can be seen as an indicator of emotional struggle and the need to address social and structural problems.[150][151] This dichotomy has led some academics and clinicians to advocate a postmodernist conceptualization of mental distress and well-being.[152][153]

It is for this reason that all the finished hemp goods that you see for sale in America, from food products to clothing to building materials, are part of an imported hemp industry that has surpassed $688 million annually. The size of this import industry is one of the major catalysts for hemp legalization in the U.S. As a renewable source of a range of products, hemp provides an exciting new step in American agriculture.
There’s no definite amount that’s appropriate for everyone, but the ratio of CBD to THC will indicate how psychoactive the product is and if it’s legal in your state. The more CBD compared with THC, the less of a high, and vice versa. “Managing psychoactivity is key to successful cannabis therapy,” says Lee. “Amounts should be made clear on the label and lab-certified so people know what’s helping them and what’s not.”

In June 2014, the New York Assembly passed S7923, which creates legal protections for patients and caregivers and authorizes the state to license and regulate “registered organizations” to cultivate and sell medical cannabis to patients. Patients must obtain a registration identification card after getting written certification from their physician.


Women's College Hospital is specifically dedicated to women's health in Canada. This hospital is located in downtown Toronto where there are several locations available for specific medical conditions. WCH is an organization that helps educate women on mental illness due to its specialization with women and mental health. The organization helps women who have symptoms of mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause. They also focus on psychological issues, abuse, neglect and mental health issues from various medications.[116]
In other words, farmers are now growing high resin cannabis (“marijuana”) with less than 0.3 percent THC. If that sounds a bit confusing, that’s because it is a bit confusing. But this much is clear: If grown, extracted and processed well, these CBD-rich plants qualify as good starter material for manufacturing CBD oil for medicinal and personal use.

The legality of CBD in the US varies from state to state, but at the federal level, CBD is mysteriously classified as a Schedule I drug despite its sourcing. According to the federal government, Schedule I drugs are substances or chemicals with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Other Schedule I drugs include heroin, LSD, marijuana, and ecstasy. However, CBD can be purchased as a dietary supplement throughout the country despite the FDA’s official stance that CBD isn’t a supplement. The landscape of CBD legality in the US is exactly as confusing as it reads; that squirrely, perplexing itch at the back of your brain is cognitive dissonance, and it’s an entirely normal reaction.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. Today the therapeutic properties of CBD are being tested and confirmed by scientists and doctors around the world. A safe, non-addictive substance, CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis and endow the plant with its robust therapeutic profile.
While normally I'd be slightly tripped up by little things like an overly crowded subway car or a full inbox at work, the CBD oil seems to have taken the edge off of my anxiety a bit. Rather than overthinking a sternly worded email or analyzing a social interaction, I've found it easier to recognize the irrationality of these thoughts and actually let them go (instead of ruminating on the situation). In some ways, I feel more like myself. With that said, I've still experienced some social anxiety when meeting new groups of people—I'd be interested to see what taking the full recommended dose would do.
In 2015, The Hebrew University of Israel published a study that documented the potency of single-molecule CBD extract versus the potency of whole-plant CBD-rich extract. It found that extract taken from whole plant CBD-rich cannabis is therapeutically superior to single-molecule extract. The scientists behind this study noticed that science had been utilizing pure, single-molecule CBD, which resulted in a bell-shaped dose-response curve. This means that CBD’s efficacy plummets at very high and very low doses.
In this April 19, 2018, photo Maxwell Reis, beverage director adds a few drops of Cannabidol CBD extract to a mixed drink at the Gracias Madre restaurant in West Hollywood, Calif. The hemp-derived CBD extract is popping up in everything, from cosmetics to chocolate bars to bottled water to bath bombs to pet treats. (AP Photo/Damian Dovarganes)ASSOCIATED PRESS
We invite you to enjoy our premium formulations of organic essential oils, organically grown, full spectrum hemp extract and optimized concentrations of CBD.  Find the best product for you.  Enjoy PK Botanicals tinctures, topicals, and isolates.  We create the highest quality natural Hemp CBD oil available in the market.  Our Hemp is organically grown in Colorado soil and contains high amounts of CBD extracted using a pure and kind method.  Maintain a clear mind and active lifestyle with hemp CBD oil!  Hemp oil extract has traditionally been used around the globe as medicine. There has been a lot of evidence that hemp oil can cure various ailments. Hemp Oil Store offers full spectrum extract.  Our unique methods allow us to extract all the beneficial components in the hemp plant. Click to browse the best hemp products you can buy online.

There are certainly CBD producers who source their hemp from cultivators that operate under the Farm Bill. But given how widespread these products are, it’s unlikely that all of them were sourced from research hemp. And state laws on CBD and hemp vary widely. Colorado, which legalized adult-use marijuana in 2012, has a robust industrial hemp program and is home to the first U.S.-bred certified hemp seed. But in Massachusetts, where you can now grow marijuana at home, it’s still a crime to grow hemp without a state license, reported The Boston Globe.


Reflecting the next morning, I was most surprised by the fact that I never felt "high" in any way—there was never a moment of It's kicking in; I can feel it now like with pain medications or even anti-anxiety drugs. Considering it takes time, consistency, and the right dosage to experience the full effect, I continued taking the oil once a day for the next six days. Here's what went down.
Pure CBD hemp oil is extracted from the cannabis varieties that are naturally abundant in CBD, and low in THC. A specialized extraction process is used to yield highly concentrated CBD oil or pure cannabidiol that also contains other nutritious material such as omega-3 fatty acids, terpenes, vitamins, chlorophyll, amino acids, and other phytocannabinoids like cannabichromene (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidivarian (CBCV).
^ Jump up to: a b c d Boggs, Douglas L; Nguyen, Jacques D; Morgenson, Daralyn; Taffe, Michael A; Ranganathan, Mohini (6 September 2017). "Clinical and preclinical evidence for functional interactions of cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol". Neuropsychopharmacology. 43 (1): 142–154. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.209. ISSN 0893-133X. PMC 5719112. PMID 28875990.

The passing of SB 218 through the Kentucky legislature created a new subsection of KRS 260.850m to 260.289, in which the Industrial Hemp Advisory Board outlines the purpose of an industrial hemp research program, establish license provisions, and create new requirements and license application procedures. This state’s approach is for the potential medical and industrial applications.
The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services also recommends that consumers should be aware of any active ingredients that dietary supplements may contain. An active ingredient of a substance is any component that produces a biological or chemical effect on the body. Our products do contain active ingredients. The most abundant active ingredient in our supplements is the CBD in our hemp extract.
Cohen has found that chronic conditions including autoimmune diseases and pain syndromes can be helped with a 6-mg under-the-tongue tincture (the fastest delivery system) or a 25-mg capsule taken twice a day. Dosages for topical products like lotions are especially hard to determine—there’s no clarity on how much CBD gets into the system through the skin.
CBD oils may contain some THC. Cannabis may impair your ability to drive safely or operate equipment and may have short- and long-term effects on your memory, attention, mood, heart rate, and mental health. It is also easy to overconsume CBD oil, so it's important to start with a low dose, as it may take several hours or longer to begin to feel the effects after consumption.
Although he has retired, Rudolf Brenneisen’s mission – the re-medicalisation of cannabis – has not come to an end. Mr Brenneisen gives lectures, talks to the press and leads the Swiss Taskforce for Cannabinoids in Medicine (STCM), for which he himself organises a biannual congress. His motto is to develop, interpret and share scientific knowledge. “We must bring the plant to the physician.”

Our products are made by infusing extract from hemp into them.   Many brands use only cbd that has been removed from the extract.  It is much less inexpensive to use CBD Isolate in the making of products.  (“CBD Isolate” is cbd that has been removed from the extract)  However, Highland Pharms CBD Hemp Oil products receive only Full Spectrum CBD Extract.  This means you get the CBD  –  PLUS all the other cannabinoids  –  when you use our products.  Full Spectrum means that the full spectrum of cannabinoids (like CBC, CBG, CBN, etc) along with all the hundreds of phytonutrients are still in our products.


It is clear that CBD oil has a number of functions in pain relief and regulation. However, there are a few arguments that are worth considering. One is the use of CBD oil on children. Although proven to be a player in autism-symptom mitigation, the influence of CBD oil on the developing brain has yet to be deemed unintrusive. It is still not recommended that CBD be used extensively on children. The recommended dosage of CBD oil for children and adults, both, must be determined in consultation with a doctor.
Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body.[7] It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.[39]

Based on reviews, smoking or vaporizing CBD vape oil seems to have less effects when compared to other methods of administering CBD, such as tinctures, capsules and sprays. On the flip side, others argue that smoking or vaporizing has less drawbacks than taking CBD orally, since ingesting CBD orally could result in inconsistent absorption and a delayed effect.
people don’t use CBD for recreational use. it has little to no THC so has no psychoactive properties. many CBD products processed from hemp also do not have enough CBD to affect any medical disorders either. they are just jumping on the trendy CBD bandwagon, like many other so-called “nutritional supplements”. so it is very difficult to find and trust the CBD processed form hemp. useful CBD from hemp can only be processed from the flowers, which is still illegal, even though no THC. the only legal use of hemp in the states is for “industrial” use, only the stalks and seeds (fiber and oil). the stalks and seeds of hemp are so lacking in usable CBD that it is not legitimate for medical use.
The 2011 National Prevention Strategy included mental and emotional well-being, with recommendations including better parenting and early intervention programs, which increase the likelihood of prevention programs being included in future US mental health policies.[39][page needed] The NIMH is researching only suicide and HIV/AIDS prevention, but the National Prevention Strategy could lead to it focusing more broadly on longitudinal prevention studies.[133][not in citation given] 

The extract known as CBD oil sold in the U.S. falls into one of two categories. Crystalline isolate exclusively contains CBD, as other cannabinoids have been removed; full spectrum oil, on the other hand, retains THC and other cannabinoids, and is only sold in states where marijuana use has been legalized. CBD oil can be consumed several different ways, including ingested capsules and food products, vaporizing, tinctures, and topical creams. The soporific effects of CBD oil are linked to its concentration; low-concentration oils will produce minimal effects, while high-concentration oils will produce strong effects.
Phyto Plus Whole Plant Hemp Cannabidiol extracts, naturally grown, free from insecticides, pesticides and non GMO. Worldwide same day shipping from the Netherlands. Produced with safe, solvent residue free, super critical CO2 extraction, the cleanest extraction method in the industry. If you are wondering where to buy pure cbd oil online in Europe, Phyto Plus is a great option. 
Berkeley-Hill, superintendent of the European Hospital (now known as the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP), established in 1918), was deeply concerned about the improvement of mental hospitals in those days. The sustained efforts of Berkeley-Hill helped to raise the standard of treatment and care and he also persuaded the government to change the term ‘asylum’ to ‘hospital’ in 1920.[103] Techniques similar to the current token-economy were first started in 1920 and called by the name ‘habit formation chart’ at the CIP, Ranchi. In 1937, the first post of psychiatric social worker was created in the child guidance clinic run by the Dhorabji Tata School of Social Work (established in 1936), It is considered as the first documented evidence of social work practice in Indian mental health field.
A few lawsuits against large carriers such as Health Care Service Corp. resulted in settlements in which the insurers agreed to revise their coverage policies on residential treatment and other behavioral healthcare services. In addition, there are other pending suits alleging unlawful coverage and reimbursement policies for behavioral healthcare against United, Blue Shield of California, Aetna and Cigna.
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