Industrialization and population growth led to a massive expansion of the number and size of insane asylums in every Western country in the 19th century. Numerous different classification schemes and diagnostic terms were developed by different authorities, and the term psychiatry was coined (1808), though medical superintendents were still known as alienists.

In order for involuntary treatment to be administered (by force if necessary), it should be shown that an individual lacks the mental capacity for informed consent (i.e. to understand treatment information and its implications, and therefore be able to make an informed choice to either accept or refuse). Legal challenges in some areas have resulted in supreme court decisions that a person does not have to agree with a psychiatrist's characterization of the issues as constituting an "illness", nor agree with a psychiatrist's conviction in medication, but only recognize the issues and the information about treatment options.[157]

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) DISCLOSURE THESE STATEMENTS HAVE NOT BEEN EVALUATED BY THE FDA AND ARE NOT INTENDED TO DIAGNOSE, TREAT, OR CURE ANY DISEASE. ALWAYS CHECK WITH YOUR PHYSICIAN BEFORE STARTING A NEW DIETARY SUPPLEMENT PROGRAM. LEAVING OUR WEBSITE DISCLAIMER: IF WE HAVE A RESEARCH LINK TO A WEBSITE WHERE WE SELL PRODUCTS OR HAVE PRODUCT INFORMATION, THE EXIT DISCLAIMER INDICATES THAT WHEN YOU CLICK OK YOU WILL LEAVE THE HEMPMEDSPX.COM WEBSITE AND VISIT AN EXTERNAL LINK. LINKS TO ANY INFORMATIONAL WEBSITES ARE PROVIDED SOLELY AS A SERVICE TO OUR USERS. EXTERNAL LINKS PROVIDE ADDITIONAL INFORMATION THAT MAY BE USEFUL OR INTERESTING AND HAS NO AFFILIATION TO THE PROMOTION, SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF HEMPMEDS PRODUCTS. THE LINK DOES NOT CONSTITUTE AN ENDORSEMENT OF THESE ORGANIZATIONS BY HEMPMEDS AND NONE SHOULD BE INFERRED. PLEASE VIEW OUR FULL TERMS OF USE AGREEMENT FOR MORE INFORMATION AND THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS GOVERNING YOUR USE OF THIS SITE.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound derived from cannabis (a hemp plant also known as marijuana). However, unlike other compounds found in cannabis, such as THC, cannabidiol is not believed to be a psychoactive compound affecting perception, and behavior. Preliminary evidence suggests CBD may modestly reduce anxiety, certain measures of dystonia (a movement disorder), and glaucoma (Health Canada 2013).
Contrary to popular opinion, the external application is not the only way by which CBD oil can be consumed. By placing it under the tongue, many consume CBD oil directly. CBD oil has also been innovatively infused into products such as moisturizers and topical creams. CBD oil is an acceptable food supplement, serving as an addendum to cookies, brownies or even tacos! CBD oil capsules are a means by which they can be ingested.
Since 2014 NuLeaf Naturals has been committed to creating the highest quality CBD oil products possible. As one of the oldest and most reviewed companies in the industry, NuLeaf Naturals has established themselves as a trustworthy CBD manufacturer. All of their products are tested by third party labs and their cannabinoid profile is truly impressive. They offer a unique range of concentrations for their organic CBD products ranging from 240mg to 4,850mg.
The patient continued to use cannabis oil for 65 days. The family changed strains of the oil repeatedly, and some were more effective in increasing appetite and alleviating pain than others. The author of the case report suggests that cannabis oil needs to be explored further because there is potential that cannabinoids might show selectivity when attacking cancer cells, thereby reducing the widespread cytotoxic effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Sadly, the young girl with ALL passed away due to gastrointestinal bleeding and a bowel perforation. 

Most hemp producers cite the 2014 Farm Bill as evidence their business is legal. In it is a provision that allows people to cultivate hemp for research purposes under pilot programs connected to universities or state agricultural departments. The bill defines “industrial hemp” as any part of the cannabis plant with less then 0.3 percent THC. Forty states have passed legislation authorizing pilot programs, and 19 of those states have active programs, cultivating and researching hemp under the guidelines.

People in all cultures find some behaviors bizarre or even incomprehensible. But just what they feel is bizarre or incomprehensible is ambiguous and subjective.[129] These differences in determination can become highly contentious. The process by which conditions and difficulties come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and problems, and thus come under the authority of doctors and other health professionals, is known as medicalization or pathologization.
Cannabis consumers have long prized potency (a high THC content) as one of the main factors that makes a particular strain more desirable. Though traditional demand for THC has caused an oversaturation of high-potency products, many consumers are starting to prefer less intense products that are lower in THC and higher in the non-intoxicating compound called cannabidiol (CBD).
Years passed, and more studies rolled out with medically beneficial findings regarding cannabis until 2009 when Steep Hill Laboratory in Oakland, California, tested cannabis samples provided by Harborside Health Center to discover that a handful of cultivars contained more CBD than THC. This discovery kicked other labs into gear. They wanted to study medical cannabis to understand and potentially calibrate their cannabinoid ratios. Soon thereafter, laboratories uncovered CBD-dominant strains boasting 20:1 CBD to THC ratios, which opened up the cannabis market for a panoply of CBD products.
Finally, experts suggest staying clean and creating healthy products is key to finding success with CBD and hemp. Nicholas Balzer, co-founder and CEO of Queen City Hemp (which started as a CBD sparkling water brand but has grown to include oils, salves and more), pointed to the fact that more consumers are looking for healthy products with fewer sugars and fats.
Along with its better-known counterpart, THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the chemical that produces the marijuana high), CBD is one of more than 400 compounds found in the oils of cannabis plant species, which include marijuana and hemp. Unlike THC, CBD will not make you high. That said, this doesn’t mean CBD is not at all psychoactive, as many assert, says Jahan Marcu, Ph.D., director of experimental pharmacology and behavior at the International Research Center on Cannabis and Mental Health in New York City: “CBD does change cognition. It affects mood, which is why people take it for anxiety. And some find that it makes them more alert.”

HB 885, CBD oil legislation known as Haleigh's Hope Act (named for four-year-old Haleigh Cox), failed to receive a Senate vote after sailing through Georgia's House on Mar. 4, 2014. However, in May, Gov. Nathan Deal signed an executiuve order calling for a study. The British firm GW Pharmaceuticals and Georgia Regents University are collaborating on the research. The legislation was reintroduced for the 2015 session. The House passed it on Mar, 25, 2015. The bill covers eightt conditions, including seizures, cancer, MS, ALS, sickle cell and mitchondria. Gov. Deal signed the bill signed the bill into law on Apr. 16, 2015. 
^ Stein, Dan J; Phillips, K.A; Bolton, D; Fulford, K.W.M; Sadler, J.Z; Kendler, K.S (November 2010). "What is a Mental/Psychiatric Disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V". Psychological Medicine. 40 (11): 1759–65. doi:10.1017/S0033291709992261. ISSN 0033-2917. OCLC 01588231. PMC 3101504. PMID 20624327. ... although this manual provides a classification of mental disorders, it must be admitted that no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept of ‘mental disorder.’ The concept of mental disorder, like many other concepts in medicine and science, lacks a consistent operational definition that covers all situations. All medical conditions are defined on various levels of abstraction—for example, structural pathology (e.g., ulcerative colitis), symptom presentation (e.g., migraine), deviance from a physiological norm (e.g., hypertension), and etiology (e.g., pneumococcal pneumonia). Mental disorders have also been defined by a variety of concepts (e.g., distress, dyscontrol, disadvantage, disability, inflexibility, irrationality, syndromal pattern, etiology, and statistical deviation). Each is a useful indicator for a mental disorder, but none is equivalent to the concept, and different situations call for different definitions.
Some manufacturers ship CBD products nationally, an illegal action which the FDA has not enforced in 2018, with CBD remaining the subject of an FDA investigational new drug evaluation, and is not considered legal as a dietary supplement or food ingredient as of December 2018.[70][71] Federal illegality has made it difficult historically to conduct research on CBD.[72] CBD is openly sold in head shops and health food stores in some states where such sales have not been explicitly legalized.[73][74]
In 2014, the Kentucky legislature revised the definition of marijuana under state law to create legal protection for patients who use a cannabidiol (CBD) medicine as part of an approved clinical trial or on the written order of “a physician practicing at a hospital or associated clinic affiliated with a Kentucky public university having a college or school of medicine.”

It is clear that CBD oil has a number of functions in pain relief and regulation. However, there are a few arguments that are worth considering. One is the use of CBD oil on children. Although proven to be a player in autism-symptom mitigation, the influence of CBD oil on the developing brain has yet to be deemed unintrusive. It is still not recommended that CBD be used extensively on children. The recommended dosage of CBD oil for children and adults, both, must be determined in consultation with a doctor.
After a month of researching legalities of CBD industry here in Colorado, I must say I’m still confused. I went to city authorities and at one point was told I needed a $50,000 permit, ya no! So went to the state level with Dept of Ag, my intent was to make cbd infused dog treats with proper dosage. NOPE can’t do that it’s illegal, so I said I’m going to keep calling until you say yes to something. Decided I would make cbd infused creams etc. I was told yes it was legal but don’t ship across state lines. Hmmm ok. Do you have to be 21 to purchase? No! Well needless to say I made product, set up website and carried on, I’m two weeks into it and SQuare credit card has cut me off! I’m am totally confused as to what I can and can’t do as I tried to follow all the laws etc. I would so appreciate any input you have on this!
On November 6, 2012, the voters of Massachusetts approved Question 3, “An Initiative Petition for a Law for the Humanitarian Medical Use of Marijuana,” by 63 percent establishing legal protection for medical cannabis patients, caregivers, physicians and medical professionals, cultivators, and providers, some of which went into effect as of January 1, 2013.
Hi Cheryl, for legal reason we can’t make any type of medical claims, saying that our product will cure or treat any type of medical diagnosis, such as (depression). Our CBD oil is great for assisting with pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety and sleep. To help with taste we do offer peppermint flavor. We will be offering more flavors in the near future. Some who take the oil like to mix it with orange juice or use orange juice as a chaser.
Routine diagnostic practice in mental health services typically involves an interview known as a mental status examination, where evaluations are made of appearance and behavior, self-reported symptoms, mental health history, and current life circumstances. The views of other professionals, relatives or other third parties may be taken into account. A physical examination to check for ill health or the effects of medications or other drugs may be conducted. Psychological testing is sometimes used via paper-and-pen or computerized questionnaires, which may include algorithms based on ticking off standardized diagnostic criteria, and in rare specialist cases neuroimaging tests may be requested, but such methods are more commonly found in research studies than routine clinical practice.[79][80]

Then, there’s HIA v. DEA – a lawsuit by a hemp trade association that challenges the agency’s classification of CBD as a Schedule I substance. Federal judges at the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals heard oral arguments in the case earlier this year. Clearly, attorneys representing hemp businesses have a different interpretation of federal law than the DEA.


Leafly is the world’s largest cannabis information resource, empowering people in legal cannabis markets to learn about the right products for their lifestyle and wellness needs. Our team of cannabis professionals collectively share years of experience in all corners of the market, from growing and retail, to science and medicine, to data and technology.
So happy with this purchase! I’ve tried many CBD products from various companies over the past 2 years with mixed and inconsistent results. I must say the taste and quality of Kats CBD is absolutely second to none. I have only been using this product for about a week but already I am able to go about my day feeling much more focused and much more at peace. Would absolutely make this purchase again and refer it to anyone interested in learning more about natural health.
"Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia.
I have been a member around a year maybe less, but I just need to tell you how much I appreciate you all. I have 3 kids and husband and was crippled with my health problems and drugs from all the doctors, I had to take. I am so much better off today. I can now contribute to my family. I feel hope for the first time for a future with them. Thank you, God Bless You!
Many people are under the impression that the only way to acquire hemp extracts and CBD for themselves or a loved one is to move to Colorado or another cannabis-friendly state. Many major news outlets are misinformed and are unfortunately spreading the idea that you can only get CBD oil in the states where medical marijuana has been legalized. This is simply not the case, though. Because our extracts come from hemp instead of marijuana, we can and do ship nationwide, and no medical marijuana card is needed. There are some exceptions, like with South Dakota, where we can’t sell our products due to state legislation.
The mental health policies in the United States have experienced four major reforms: the American asylum movement led by Dorothea Dix in 1843; the "mental hygiene" movement inspired by Clifford Beers in 1908; the deinstitutionalization started by Action for Mental Health in 1961; and the community support movement called for by The CMCH Act Amendments of 1975.[125]

The earliest citing of mental disorders in India are from Vedic Era (2000 BC – AD 600).[98] Charaka Samhita, an ayurvedic textbook believed to be from 400–200 BC describes various factors of mental stability. It also has instructions regarding how to set up a care delivery system.[99] In the same era In south India Siddha was a medical system, the great sage Agastya, one of the 18 siddhas contributing to a system of medicine has included the Agastiyar Kirigai Nool, a compendium of psychiatric disorders and their recommended treatments.[100] In Atharva Veda too there are descriptions and resolutions about mental health afflictions. In the Mughal period Unani system of medicine was introduced by an Indian physician Unhammad in 1222.[101] Then existed form of psychotherapy was known then as ilaj-i-nafsani in Unani medicine.
In the past several years however, public interest in CBD has skyrocketed based on claims — largely unsubstantiated through good clinical research thus far — that it may be a kind of cure-all miracle drug, with therapeutic effects ranging from pain relief to eradicating cancer. In fact, while CBD research has been limited due to federal restrictions, preliminary evidence does suggest that it might help with psychiatric conditions like anxiety disorders (note that while many people claim that CBD is not “psychoactive,” it’s potential as an anxiolytic medication suggests otherwise) and  recent randomized, controlled clinical trials suggest a possible role in the treatment of psychotic disorders.2,3 In 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex, a form of CBD manufactured by GW Pharmaceuticals, for the treatment of rare forms of pediatric epilepsy (see my blogpost "Cannabis for Kids: Can Marijuana Treat Childhood Seizures?").
Customers should always request third party lab results that test for potency, pesticides, residual solvents, and mycotoxins of the CBD hemp oil. If a company is reluctant to share these results with you, it should automatically be a red flag and indicate that they have something to hide. We’ve done the work and checked if these brands offer those tests to their customers.
Pure CBD hemp oil is extracted from the cannabis varieties that are naturally abundant in CBD, and low in THC. A specialized extraction process is used to yield highly concentrated CBD oil or pure cannabidiol that also contains other nutritious material such as omega-3 fatty acids, terpenes, vitamins, chlorophyll, amino acids, and other phytocannabinoids like cannabichromene (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidivarian (CBCV).
To make matters more confusing, nine states (including California, Washington, and Colorado) let residents buy cannabis-based products with or without THC. Nearly two dozen other “medical marijuana states” allow the sale of cannabis, including capsules, tinctures, and other items containing CBD or THC, at licensed dispensaries to people whose doctors have certified that they have an approved condition (the list varies by state but includes chronic pain, PTSD, cancer, autism, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis). Sixteen more states legalized CBD for certain diseases. But because all these products are illegal according to the federal government, cannabis advocates are cautious. “By and large, the federal government is looking the other way,” says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the Washington, DC–based National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), but until federal laws are changed, “this administration or a future one could crack down on people who produce, manufacture, or use CBD, and the law would be on its side.”
Because CBD oil products are mostly unregulated, there’s no guarantee that any given product contains a safe or effective level of CBD. In fact, a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2017 found that nearly 70 percent of all CBD products sold online are incorrectly labeled, and could cause serious harm to consumers. Some CBD oils may also contain incorrectly labeled amounts of THC and other compounds.

Cohen has found that chronic conditions including autoimmune diseases and pain syndromes can be helped with a 6-mg under-the-tongue tincture (the fastest delivery system) or a 25-mg capsule taken twice a day. Dosages for topical products like lotions are especially hard to determine—there’s no clarity on how much CBD gets into the system through the skin.


Mental health illnesses such as Huntington’s Disease (HD), Tourette syndrome and schizophrenia were believed to be signs of possession by the Devil. This led to several mentally ill patients being subjected to exorcisms. This practice has been around for a long time, though decreasing steadily until it reached a low in the 18th century. It seldom occurred until the 20th century when the numbers rose due to the attention the media was giving to exorcisms. Different belief systems practice exorcisms in different ways.[68]
Mental health social workers in Japan have professional knowledge of health and welfare and skills essential for person's well-being. Their social work training enables them as a professional to carry out Consultation assistance for mental disabilities and their social reintegration; Consultation regarding the rehabilitation of the victims; Advice and guidance for post-discharge residence and re-employment after hospitalized care, for major life events in regular life, money and self-management and in other relevant matters in order to equip them to adapt in daily life. Social workers provide individual home visits for mentally ill and do welfare services available, with specialized training a range of procedural services are coordinated for home, workplace and school. In an administrative relationship, Psychiatric social workers provides consultation, leadership, conflict management and work direction. Psychiatric social workers who provides assessment and psychosocial interventions function as a clinician, counselor and municipal staff of the health centers.[87]
I cannot personally vouch for most of the brands on Amazon currently vs. most of the merchants on our page here, but I include Amazon as a resource for the folks that are comfortable shopping via that platform. You can also find my beginners guide, The Cannabis Oil Companion on Amazon in both paperback and Kindle.  *We have been having some issues with our Amazon widget not displaying below intermittently in certain browsers, trying to troubleshoot this behavior, we apologize if this is not rendering for you.  There is also a text link to Amazon's hemp oil section listed below.
Just like THC, CBD is a chemical compound extracted from hemp plants. Both hemp and cannabis contain cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive substance. THC, however, is the substance that gives users that “high” or psychoactive effect. CBD has many similarities to THC when it comes to potential health benefits, but the main difference is that it’s a non-psychoactive substance, so it doesn’t give a natural high to users. It also does not cause anxiety, paranoia, or the mouth and eye dryness associated with THC, even when CBD is consumed in higher concentrations. Due to these inherent advantages, most high-quality CBD oil products on the market today are extracted from the hemp plant. THC oil, on the other hand, is derived from the cannabis plant, so it contains high levels of THC and low levels of CBD. On the other hand, industrially produced hemp contains higher concentrations of CBD with only trace amounts of THC, so it’s safer and offers fewer symptoms for users.
Hemp and Marijuana are both varieties of the same plant species, Cannabis sativa. Cannabis contains over 400 chemical compounds. Of these compounds, 113, known as cannabinoids and have a direct effect on the body through cannabinoid receptors in our cells. The body naturally produces endocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system plays a crucial role in regulating our physiology, mood and everyday experience. The discovery of this endocannabinoid system came about during research on marijuana’s effects and is one of the most exciting and underreported developments in modern science.
Our Hemp Classic CBD Oil extract contains 250+ mg cannabinoids per fluid ounce extracted from industrial hemp. It contains an abundance of naturally-occurring, beneficial components, including cannabinoids, terpenes, amino acids, trace minerals (such as iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium), omega fatty acids (including omega 3 & 6), carbohydrates, flavonoids, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, glycosides, nitrogenous compounds, alkanes, and vitamins (including B1, B2, B6, D). The cannabis oil is emulsified in organic hemp seed oil.
In 2014, the Kentucky legislature revised the definition of marijuana under state law to create legal protection for patients who use a cannabidiol (CBD) medicine as part of an approved clinical trial or on the written order of “a physician practicing at a hospital or associated clinic affiliated with a Kentucky public university having a college or school of medicine.”
Multiple Sclerosis is a condition in which the immune system mistakenly reacts abhorrently to healthy cells and organs. Also known as an autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis causes reoccurring spasms and enduring pain, for those affected. Although the effect is modest, CBD oil, acting as an anticonvulsant, can help in mitigating the number of spasms caused, as well as the resulting pain.
Under federal law, cannabis (from which both CBD and marijuana are derived) is illegal everywhere, although the laws against it aren’t generally enforced in states that have legalized marijuana. Some manufacturers claim that CBD culled from legally imported industrial hemp, which has little to no THC, is fine to ship across the U.S., but many experts disagree, noting that because hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, cannabis sativa, all CBD falls under the DEA’s Schedule 1 designation. “This creative interpretation of the law runs afoul of reality,” says the Brookings Institution, a Washington, DC, think tank.
While marijuana – including CBD (cannabidiol) oil products made from marijuana – must comply with seed-to-sale state laws that make these products illegal to transport across state lines, hemp – whether hemp oil, hemp nuts or hemp supplement oils that are highly concentrated with CBD- is perfectly legal for use throughout the United States, as long as the hemp is imported from an international source. (Hemp oil grown in the United States is subject to the same seed-to-sale state laws that apply to marijuana.)
^ Demyttenaere, Koen; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Posada-Villa, Jose; Gasquet, Isabelle; Kovess, Viviane; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bernert, Sebastian; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Morosini, P; Polidori, G; Kikkawa, T; Kawakami, N; Ono, Y; Takeshima, T; Uda, H; Karam, EG; Fayyad, JA; Karam, AN; Mneimneh, ZN; Medina-Mora, ME; Borges, G; Lara, C; De Graaf, R; Ormel, J; Gureje, O; Shen, Y; Huang, Y; Zhang, M; Alonso, J (2004). "Prevalence, Severity, and Unmet Need for Treatment of Mental Disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys". JAMA. 291 (21): 2581–90. doi:10.1001/jama.291.21.2581. PMID 15173149.
Colorado's first and oldest medical cannabis law is a citizens’ initiative called Amendment 20 that amends the state constitution to authorize patients to possess and use medical cannabis and to be assisted by a caregiver. Colorado's second medical cannabis law, the Colorado Medical Marijuana Code (C.R.S. 12-43.3-101 et seq.), was enacted by the legislature in the summer of 2010 to establish a dual licensing mechanism that regulates medical cannabis business at both the state and local level.

NuLeaf Naturals CBD oil tinctures are all full spectrum; it is 100% organic and never made with herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers. The brand offers a full spectrum pet CBD oil tincture, as well. NuLeaf Naturals offers free shipping to all 50 states; the brand’s products are also sold in more than 1,000 retail locations across the country.


Different societies or cultures, even different individuals in a subculture, can disagree as to what constitutes optimal versus pathological biological and psychological functioning. Research has demonstrated that cultures vary in the relative importance placed on, for example, happiness, autonomy, or social relationships for pleasure. Likewise, the fact that a behavior pattern is valued, accepted, encouraged, or even statistically normative in a culture does not necessarily mean that it is conducive to optimal psychological functioning.
A: No, you will not fail a drug test. All our Zatural products are 3rd party tested to ensure that no THC is present in the oil. We only sell products that register as ND (Not Detected) or 0. Most drug tests are testing for THC levels. However, cheaper drug testing may be testing a wider variety of cannabinoids as they may not be specific enough to test for THC only. It is always a good idea to discuss with your employer or whomever before hand and explain that you are considering taking Hemp Oil or CBD oil. We can provide the tests showing there is no THC present.
Hash oil, also known as honey oil or cannabis oil, is an oleoresin obtained by the extraction of cannabis or hashish. It is a concentrated form of the plant containing many of its resins and terpenes – in particular, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and other cannabinoids. There are various extraction methods, most involving a solvent, such as butane or ethanol. Hash oil is usually consumed by smoking, vaporizing or eating. Hash oil may be sold in cartridges used with pen vaporizers. Preparations of hash oil may be solid or colloidal depending on both production method and temperature and are usually identified by their appearance or characteristics. Range of color, most commonly golden to light brown, can vary from transparent to yellow, to tan or black. Cannabis retailers in California have reported about 40% of their sales are from cannabis oils.[1]
Because our hemp oil products are categorized as dietary supplements in the United States, we comply with the FDA’s DSHEA guidelines and cannot endorse any specific medical benefits of CBD or our CBD oil. To further comply with FDA regulations, HempMeds® does not list a Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of our own, nor do we provide a Daily Value (%DV) for any of our products. We encourage you to browse the thousands of reputable studies regarding CBD published online and talk with your doctor to see if a CBD oil supplement is right for you.
Pharmaceutical companies producing oils are subject to a pharmaceutical production licence for controlled drugs, issued by government regulators. Currently there are no pharmaceutical companies producing cannabis oil as a medicine. This might change in the future when a standardised, GMP-certified production method becomes available, setting the standards for the production of cannabis oil as a pharmaceutical product.
In Georgia, for example, the legislature passed a law in 2015 that made legal possession of up to 20 ounces of CBD for patients with qualifying conditions like seizure disorders and multiple sclerosis. The law does not, however, set up any supply infrastructure—there are no licensed dispensaries or producers. Recently, the Georgia legislature passed a compromise law that includes Alzheimer’s disease, AIDS, autism, epidermolysis bullosa, peripheral neuropathy, and Tourette’s syndrome in the list of diseases that can be treated by CBD—as long as that CBD oil has no more than 5 percent THC.
Mental health illnesses such as Huntington’s Disease (HD), Tourette syndrome and schizophrenia were believed to be signs of possession by the Devil. This led to several mentally ill patients being subjected to exorcisms. This practice has been around for a long time, though decreasing steadily until it reached a low in the 18th century. It seldom occurred until the 20th century when the numbers rose due to the attention the media was giving to exorcisms. Different belief systems practice exorcisms in different ways.[68]
Hemp is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant that is grown specifically for industrial purposes. For millennia, people have used hemp fibers from the stalks and stems of the plant to make rope, textiles, paper, and many other products and have also used its seeds (and the oil from the seeds) as a food source. In the US however, heavy regulation and taxation of hemp dating back to the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 and subsequently through the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 all but rendered hemp farming in the US a legal impossibility for most of the past century.
In fact, findings consistently indicate that it is many times more likely that people diagnosed with a serious mental illness living in the community will be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violence.[182][183] In a study of individuals diagnosed with "severe mental illness" living in a US inner-city area, a quarter were found to have been victims of at least one violent crime over the course of a year, a proportion eleven times higher than the inner-city average, and higher in every category of crime including violent assaults and theft.[184] People with a diagnosis may find it more difficult to secure prosecutions, however, due in part to prejudice and being seen as less credible.[185]
The mental health policies in the United States have experienced four major reforms: the American asylum movement led by Dorothea Dix in 1843; the "mental hygiene" movement inspired by Clifford Beers in 1908; the deinstitutionalization started by Action for Mental Health in 1961; and the community support movement called for by The CMCH Act Amendments of 1975.[125]
The side effects and risks involved with consuming marijuana-based products aren't clear, either, Bonn-Miller said. It's important to "determine cannabinoids that are useful therapeutically while understanding and using cannabinoids that are associated with less risk," he said. At least with CBD, he said, it doesn't appear to have the potential for addiction. That's different from THC, which has been associated with addiction, he said, and negative side effects, including acute anxiety.
In addition to acting on the brain, CBD influences many body processes. That’s due to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which was discovered in the 1990s, after scientists started investigating why pot produces a high. Although much less well-known than the cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the ECS is critical. “The ECS helps us eat, sleep, relax, forget what we don’t need to remember, and protect our bodies from harm,” Marcu says. There are more ECS receptors in the brain than there are for opioids or serotonin, plus others in the intestines, liver, pancreas, ovaries, bone cells, and elsewhere.
Some CBD oil brands can be evasive when it comes to product testing details. Populum addresses this by including a hard copy of the oil’s lab testing results in the product packaging. Full lab results are easily accessible on the brand’s website, as well. Prices for the Populum CBD oil range from 18 to 24 cents per milligram, depending on the container size, making it a relatively inexpensive full spectrum product. All U.S. military veterans receive a 25% discount, as well. Populum offers a risk-free 30-night product trial.
A bit of online digging led me to realize that the active ingredient in Charlotte's Web Everyday Plus Hemp Oil, the product I'd been offered to test, was the chemical compound CBD, which stands for Cannabidiol. Unlike THC, the other crucial compound in hemp and marijuana plants, CBD does not produce the psychoactive effects that make you feel "high"; instead, it actually eases anxiety and makes you less likely to freak out.
CBD shows promise in the treatment of anxiety disorders, according to a report published in the journal Neurotherapeutics in 2015. Looking at results from experimental research, clinical trials, and epidemiological studies, the report’s authors found evidence that CBD may help treat generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the authors caution that human-based research on CBD and anxiety is fairly limited at this point.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - this can occur after somebody has been through a traumatic event - something horrible or frightening that they experienced or witnessed. During this type of event, the person thinks that their life or other people's lives are in danger. They may feel afraid or feel that they have no control over what is happening.

CBD primarily interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system, a grouping of millions of cannabinoid receptors found throughout your body, but are primarily clustered in the brain and central nervous system. While CBD is a phytocannabinoid, or plant-based cannabinoid, your body also naturally produces cannabinoids, known as endocannabinoids. Almost every organ of your body, including your skin and digestive tract, contains cannabinoid receptors. The endocannabinoid system has four primary purposes including neuroprotection, stress relief, immune response, and regulating the body’s general state of balance, impacting faculties such as appetite, sleep, mood, and pain.


AC/DC: A Sativa-dominant phenotype of Cannatonic, this cultivar boasts one of the highest ratios of CBD to THC, clocking in at 20:1. AC/DC is claimed to help reduce pain, anxiety, depression and migraines while reducing symptoms in patients with epilepsy, some forms of cancer, and multiple sclerosis. This cultivar’s pinene-rich terpene profile offers potent clear-headed pain relief.
Start a CBD company: In the past two years, CBD has gone from a compound we knew little about to a flourishing industry with medical and medicinal uses. that could soon become a global market. The World Health Organization recently recommended rescheduling cannabis and removing CBD from the list of substances subject to international drug control laws.
Mental and physical health are equally important components of overall health.  Mental illness, especially depression, increases the risk for many types of physical health problems, particularly long-lasting conditions like stroke, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Similarly, the presence of chronic conditions can increase the risk for mental illness.2
CBD oil products can be somewhat expensive, which may be a barrier for individuals seeking treatment or relief from different conditions and disorders. cbdMD is a notable exception as far as price-point is concerned. cbdMD offers it’s premium, non-THC oils at a large variety of concentrations (300mg-5,000mg) as well as sizes (30mL and 60mL) . These oils are priced at $29.99 for 300mg oils and $99.99 for 1,500mg oils; these price-points are significantly below average.
I was arrested and charged with a FELONY in Saratoga, WY on Sept 2017 for possession of CBD hemp oil ‘THC liquid’ by a banjo playing member of the Hitler youth named Robert The Bifano. The state’s crime lab found a “presence” of THC and even violated state statutes by weighing the glass bottle! Due to atrocious legal counsel–Steven Titus of Gillette, WY whom I found on the NORML site–out of duress from threats to my physical safety while incarcerated and Titus warning that I couldn’t “trust” twelve “moronic motherfu@#%s in Carbon County” in a jury trial and that “You’ll go to prison,” I accepted a terrible alford plea that turned me into a felon for life under 3 years of supervised probation. I was also charged with a second bogus felony for good measure. Stay out of Wyoming folks–the state where Matthew Shepard was beaten to death and strung up on a fence and left to die like a dog by two Neanderthals– especially steer clear of the towns of Rawlins and Saratoga and along Interstate 80—-the ‘ju$tice’ sy$tem in Carbon County is corrupt. “Vacation in Wyoming–Leave on Probation.”
Because our hemp extract is a natural supplement that comes from a plant, it has a taste that some consider to be bitter and strong. While many of our customers like the flavor, some would rather find a way to mask it. If that’s you, try mixing the oil in honey, applesauce, or a smoothie. Another great option is to try our hemp extract in capsule form. These are easy to swallow with a glass of water or your favorite juice.
CBD can increase blood serum levels of antiepleptic drugs (Gaston, Epilepsia 2017). CBD may increase the blood-thinning effects of warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) likely because CBD competes for the same liver enzymes that break down warfarin and other drugs. This was observed in a man with post-stroke epilepsy taking warfarin: His INR (a measure of how long it takes blood to clot) began increasing several weeks after starting CBD (Epidiolex, Greenwich Biosciences, Inc.) for his seizures. His CBD dosing started with several hundred milligrams daily and increased to over 1,000 mg, at which point his warfarin dose had been reduced by approximately 30% (Grayson, Epilepsy Behav Case Rep 2017).
The definition and classification of mental disorders are key issues for researchers as well as service providers and those who may be diagnosed. For a mental state to classify as a disorder, it generally needs to cause dysfunction.[9] Most international clinical documents use the term mental "disorder", while "illness" is also common. It has been noted that using the term "mental" (i.e., of the mind) is not necessarily meant to imply separateness from brain or body.
^ Klein C, Karanges E, Spiro A, Wong A, Spencer J, Huynh T, Gunasekaran N, Karl T, Long LE, Huang XF, Liu K, Arnold JC, McGregor IS (November 2011). "Cannabidiol potentiates Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats". Psychopharmacology. 218 (2): 443–457. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2342-0. PMID 21667074.
It is also the case that, while often being characterized in purely negative terms, some mental traits or states labeled as disorders can also involve above-average creativity, non-conformity, goal-striving, meticulousness, or empathy.[48] In addition, the public perception of the level of disability associated with mental disorders can change.[49]

While rates of psychological disorders are often the same for men and women, women tend to have a higher rate of depression. Each year 73 million women are affected by major depression, and suicide is ranked 7th as the cause of death for women between the ages of 20–59. Depressive disorders account for close to 41.9% of the disability from neuropsychiatric disorders among women compared to 29.3% among men.[122]

The list of states where medical or recreational use of marijuana and CBD is legal keeps growing. Thirty-three states and Washington, D.C., have passed medical marijuana laws (including 10 states and the nation's capital where recreational and medical use is legal), says Paul Armentano, deputy director of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). Also, 14 states have enacted CBD-explicit medical laws.


The case study notes that advanced chemotherapeutic agents had failed to control the blast counts (cells in the blood and bone marrow) in the patient and had devastating side effects that ultimately resulted in death. The cannabinoid therapy, on the other hand, had no toxic side effects and only psychosomatic properties, with an increase in the patient’s vitality.
According to statistics released by the Centre of Addiction and Mental Health one in five people in Ontario experience a mental health or addiction problem.[citation needed] Young people ages 15 to 25 are particularly vulnerable.[citation needed] Major depression is found to affect 8% and anxiety disorder 12% of the population.[citation needed] Women are 1.5 times more likely to suffer from mood and anxiety disorders.[citation needed] WHO points out that there are distinct gender differences in patterns of mental health and illness.[citation needed] The lack of power and control over their socioeconomic status, gender based violence; low social position and responsibility for the care of others render women vulnerable to mental health risks.[citation needed] Since more women than men seek help regarding a mental health problem, this has led to not only gender stereotyping but also reinforcing social stigma. WHO has found that this stereotyping has led doctors to diagnose depression more often in women than in men even when they display identical symptoms. Often communication between health care providers and women is authoritarian leading to either the under-treatment or over-treatment of these women.[4]
CBD oil may be of some benefit to those with addiction, suggests a review published in the journal Substance Abuse in 2015. In their analysis of 14 previously published studies, scientists determined that CBD may have therapeutic effects in people with opioid, cocaine, and/or psychostimulant addiction. They also found that CBD may be beneficial in the treatment of cannabis and tobacco addiction. There is some evidence that CBD may block or reduce the effects of THC on the mind.

In 2015, there were an estimated 9.8 million adults – about 1 in 25 Americans aged 18 or older – with serious mental illness. “Serious mental illness” is defined as individuals experiencing within the past year a mental illness or disorder with serious functional impairment that substantially interferes with or limits one or more major life activities.6
We have been involved in Colorado's medicinal and legal cannabis industry since its inception, so we've seen the expansion from high quality medicine to social commodity. Investment dollars have rushed into various sectors of the industry and the primary focus is ROI. When people see green it's easy to get excited and focus on the numbers instead of the patients. Of all the companies we've interacted with and tested, Ambary Gardens has been the standout. Their vertically integrated Colorado-based facility is is impressive as their product line.
However, several critics maintain that deinstitutionalization has, from a mental health point of view, been a thoroughgoing failure. The seriously mentally ill are either homeless, or in prison; in either case (especially the latter), they are getting little or no mental health care. This failure is attributed to a number of reasons over which there is some degree of contention, although there is general agreement that community support programs have been ineffective at best, due to a lack of funding.[131]

99% of the time marijuana has a large concentration of THC compared to CBD. Hemp, on the other hand, naturally has a larger concentration of CBD compared to THC. Fortunately, the cannabinoid profile of hemp is ideal for people looking for benefits from cannabis without the ‘high.’ Hemp is used for making herbal supplements, food, fiber, rope, paper, bricks, oil, natural plastic, and so much more, whereas marijuana is usually used just recreationally, spiritually, and medicinally. The term cannabis oil can refer to either a marijuana or hemp-derived oil since marijuana and hemp are two different forms of cannabis.


The World Health Organization reports that in many instances national mental health legislation takes away the rights of persons with mental disorders rather than protecting rights, and is often outdated.[156] In 1991, the United Nations adopted the Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care, which established minimum human rights standards of practice in the mental health field. In 2006, the UN formally agreed the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of disabled people, including those with psychosocial disabilities.[159]
Our family has been making healthy oils and supplements in the Pacific Northwest for nearly 30 years. As a leader in the natural foods industry, we stake our reputation on innovating and creating the quality products our customers have come to expect. And like all of our products, our Ideal CBD Hemp Oil meets the very highest standards of excellence.
Counseling (professional) and co-counseling (between peers) may be used. Psychoeducation programs may provide people with the information to understand and manage their problems. Creative therapies are sometimes used, including music therapy, art therapy or drama therapy. Lifestyle adjustments and supportive measures are often used, including peer support, self-help groups for mental health and supported housing or supported employment (including social firms). Some advocate dietary supplements.[107]

Women's College Hospital is specifically dedicated to women's health in Canada. This hospital is located in downtown Toronto where there are several locations available for specific medical conditions. WCH is an organization that helps educate women on mental illness due to its specialization with women and mental health. The organization helps women who have symptoms of mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause. They also focus on psychological issues, abuse, neglect and mental health issues from various medications.[116]


Hi Rebecca - Good news - We have tested PrimeMyBody Nano-Enhanced Hemp Oil (24 mg hemp extract, etc.) and the results are shown and compared to other CBD products in our Review at https://www.consumerlab.com/reviews/cbd-oil-hemp-review/cbd-oil/. As you will see, although the product does contain CBD, only part of the 24 mg of extract is CBD. You will also see that there are more cost-effective products in terms of getting CBD. Also see our information about bioavailability of CBD in the "How to Take" section of the Review.
Though unflavored and priced higher than competitors, Green Roads CBD oils are made by a trusted manufacturer and use organically grown hemp. Following the CO2 supercritical fluid extraction process, board-certified pharmacists formulate the tincture by hand. Green Roads only sells CBD isolates, so if you’re looking for broad-spectrum products look to some of our other recommendations.

Lobotomy was used in the 20th century as a common practice of alternative treatment for mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression. The first ever modern leucotomy meant for the purpose of treating a mental illness occurred in 1935 by a Portuguese neurologist, Antonio Egas Moniz. He received the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1949. [1]. This belief that mental health illnesses could be treated by surgery came from Swiss neurologist, Gottlieb Burckhardt. After conducting experiments on six patients with schizophrenia, he claimed that half of his patients recovered or calmed down. Psychiatrist Walter Freeman believed that "an overload of emotions led to mental illness and “that cutting certain nerves in the brain could eliminate excess emotion and stabilize a personality", according to a National Public Radio article.[67]


Carbon dioxide is passed through the plant material at a very specific temperature and pressure. Carbon dioxide, which is normally a gas at (or above) room temperature, can be pressurized until it becomes so dense that it takes on some of the properties of a liquid while still maintaining the fluid dynamics of a gas. In this state, CO2 is known as a supercritical fluid. 

Designed to provide the optimum absorption of CBD into the blood stream by employing a patented slow release delivery system. It’s well accepted that CBD is most effective when taken sublingualy, however most oils when taken in this way are swallowed and broken down by your body. The Gel-Tab™. is placed under the tongue and the CBD is slowly absorbed resulting in higher rates of CBD being absorbed than what would be achieved with a normal oil
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