Mental disorders can arise from multiple sources, and in many cases there is no single accepted or consistent cause currently established. An eclectic or pluralistic mix of models may be used to explain particular disorders.[64][77] The primary paradigm of contemporary mainstream Western psychiatry is said to be the biopsychosocial model which incorporates biological, psychological and social factors, although this may not always be applied in practice.

That leaves those touting CBD’s effectiveness pointing primarily to research in mice and petri dishes. There, CBD (sometimes combined with small amounts of THC) has shown promise for helping pain, neurological conditions like anxiety and PTSD, and the immune system—and therefore potentially arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and more.


Mental health care navigation helps to guide patients and families through the fragmented, often confusing mental health industries. Care navigators work closely with patients and families through discussion and collaboration to provide information on best therapies as well as referrals to practitioners and facilities specializing in particular forms of emotional improvement. The difference between therapy and care navigation is that the care navigation process provides information and directs patients to therapy rather than providing therapy. Still, care navigators may offer diagnosis and treatment planning. Though many care navigators are also trained therapists and doctors. Care navigation is the link between the patient and the below therapies. A clear recognition that mental health requires medical intervention was demonstrated in a study by Kessler et al. of the prevalence and treatment of mental disorders from 1990 to 2003 in the United States. Despite the prevalence of mental health disorders remaining unchanged during this period, the number of patients seeking treatment for mental disorders increased threefold.[62]
In 2015, there were an estimated 9.8 million adults – about 1 in 25 Americans aged 18 or older – with serious mental illness. “Serious mental illness” is defined as individuals experiencing within the past year a mental illness or disorder with serious functional impairment that substantially interferes with or limits one or more major life activities.6
Pharmaceutical companies producing oils are subject to a pharmaceutical production licence for controlled drugs, issued by government regulators. Currently there are no pharmaceutical companies producing cannabis oil as a medicine. This might change in the future when a standardised, GMP-certified production method becomes available, setting the standards for the production of cannabis oil as a pharmaceutical product.
Armentano pointed to several pieces of evidence as proof that CBD has always been treated as illegal at the federal level. Congress has tried and is currently trying to pass bills to remove CBD from the Controlled Substances Act—which would be unnecessary if the compound were already legal. Further, the Controlled Substances Act itself specifies that the government has the right to control substances that are chemically similar to the ones explicitly listed.
In the current market space is there much difference in cost, in bulk, between 99+% pure CBD from the different sources being discussed? IOW between high-cbd cannabis, and low-total-cannabinoid “industrial hemp”, and hemp grown for seeds not fiber? Extraction from high-cbd cannabis would seem easier as you have to work with less plant material per unit of end product, but then it costs a lot less per lb plant material to grow a huge field of hemp. So, how does it land these days?
Do not confuse cannabis oil extracts(marijuana) with hemp seed oil, which is the oil expeller pressed from hemp seed and not chemically extracted from cannabis leaves and flowers.  Marijuana oil extracts on the other hand contain from 5-20% THC. WE DO NOT CARRY THIS OIL.  ALL OUR OILS ARE LEGAL IN THE UNITED STATES. All of our Oils come from the Industrial Hemp Plant and are legal in all 50 states. 
The situation isn’t much better in the UK; there are so many legal grey areas surrounding cannabis in hemp and CBD form that nobody knows the full extent of the law today. CBD oil is completely legal in the UK, but there is apparent illegality surrounding the possession of hemp flowers. This article is a good read for looking at cannabis laws (including hemp and CBD) in the UK
CBD has some other very important jobs outside of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). For instance, CBD mildly activates one of the brain’s predominant serotonin receptors (5-HT1A), which may explain CBD’s effects on depression and anxiety. It also acts at the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which halt the proliferation of cancer cells and convey neuro- and cardioprotection. By interacting with a particular PPAR (gamma), CBD could prove to be a promising new way to prevent alzheimer’s disease and other brain disorders.

There’s little in the way of evidence to suggest that either cannabis or hemp oil benefits most cancer patients. An early-stage trial we supported testing a drug called Sativex (made from cannabis extract) combined with temozolomide showed that it helped patients with brain tumours that had come back live longer. We’ll need to wait for further, larger trials to be certain of its benefits, and we don’t know if it will help people with other types of cancer.
Definitely not. Standard hemp seed oil, which can be found very cheaply at a grocery store, is a much different product than our full-spectrum hemp extracts (not from seed). Standard hemp seed oil is produced by cold pressing the seeds, whereas our hemp extract is a full plant extraction with many components not typically found in the seeds. Hemp seed oil is considered to be a great nutritive food, but it doesn’t have the naturally occurring terpenes, cannabinoids and other components that our extracts do have.
As CBD’s medicinal qualities continue to make waves across the country, more states are starting to look into limited medical marijuana legalization laws so their residents can get access to CBD products to treat their debilitating medical conditions. If a patient is unlucky enough to live in a state with no laws in place or no legal access to CBD products, he or she may feel as if there’s no viable alternative that can provide the same relief.
Before purchasing any CBD product in these states (aside from the 8 mentioned above) you must have a medical prescription issued by a certified medical doctor. Each state has a particular concentration of THC it allows to be present in a CBD product, with the percentage ranging from 0.3% — 8%. (See details in table 1.1 below). Even though the legal situation seems to be shifting in a positive direction, if you are in any of these states, it is very important to be aware of the state’s laws towards CBD.
Contrary to popular opinion, the external application is not the only way by which CBD oil can be consumed. By placing it under the tongue, many consume CBD oil directly. CBD oil has also been innovatively infused into products such as moisturizers and topical creams. CBD oil is an acceptable food supplement, serving as an addendum to cookies, brownies or even tacos! CBD oil capsules are a means by which they can be ingested.
CBD edibles are foods and beverages infused with CBD for oral consumption, and they are immensely popular thanks to their delicious taste as well as their soothing effects. From CBD fruit rolls to CBD-infused coffee, CBD edibles include a wide array of shapes, dosages, and mouthwatering flavors. CBD edibles offer an easy and discreet way to never forget your daily dose of CBD. Besides their fun and fruity taste and appearance, Green Roads CBD Edibles offer all the benefits of CBD in a convenient 30-day supply so you’ll never run out whether you need a short-term fix or long-term relief.
Canabidol™ CBD Cannabis Oil (CBD Oli)– Available in 25%,50% and 75% concentrations. Our proprietary engineering process has been developed to isolate and remove any unwanted compounds, while creating the maximum potency level of phytocannabinoids.  State-of-the-art technology is employed to ensure a full-spectrum oil, that includes both high levels of Canabidiol, Cannabinoids and terpenes. This guarantees a consistent, pure, and premium product for our customers
Unlike the DSM and ICD, some approaches are not based on identifying distinct categories of disorder using dichotomous symptom profiles intended to separate the abnormal from the normal. There is significant scientific debate about the relative merits of categorical versus such non-categorical (or hybrid) schemes, also known as continuum or dimensional models. A spectrum approach may incorporate elements of both.
The reason so many people are interested in cannabis products that don’t make them high, proponents say, is that CBD helps with everything from pain and nausea to rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, Crohn’s disease, and dementia. CBD is anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, antibacterial, immunosuppressive, and more, says Joseph Cohen, D.O., a cannabis doctor in Boulder, CO.
Consumers report using CBD for a huge variety of health and wellness reasons, but a lot more research is needed to determine which symptoms and ailments it works best for. Currently, there are more than 40 clinical trials enrolling patients to examine the effectiveness of CBD for a variety of diseases, including substance use disorder, chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, schizophrenia, and many others. Most importantly, CBD is incredibly safe, and not addictive. Even young children can tolerate daily doses of up to twenty milligrams (20 mg) per kilogram (1 kg) of body weight (for a 175 pound adult, that’s more than 1,500 mg). The most common side effect of high-dose CBD is sleepiness.

Receptra Naturals CBD products are derived from proprietary CBD rich hemp, grown on family owned and operated farms in Colorado using 100% organic farming practices on select organic soils without the use of pesticides or fungicides.  I got to know the folks at Receptra while dealing with Charlotte's Web Botanicals years back and continued to stay in contact when they left CW to form Receptra Naturals. 
Marijuana-derived CBD products, on the other hand, don’t enjoy the same luxuries. Because it has been derived from THC-rich marijuana, marijuana-derived CBD, even its isolated from, is considered as a byproduct of marijuana and is judged accordingly. In some states, marijuana-derived CBD is completely legal, while in others, it is completely illegal, but in most states, its a bit of a mixed bag, each state having CBD-specific laws.
The extract known as CBD oil sold in the U.S. falls into one of two categories. Crystalline isolate exclusively contains CBD, as other cannabinoids have been removed; full spectrum oil, on the other hand, retains THC and other cannabinoids, and is only sold in states where marijuana use has been legalized. CBD oil can be consumed several different ways, including ingested capsules and food products, vaporizing, tinctures, and topical creams. The soporific effects of CBD oil are linked to its concentration; low-concentration oils will produce minimal effects, while high-concentration oils will produce strong effects.
exhaustion and pain that kept her on the couch much of the day. The 58-year-old Seattle speech coach didn’t want to take opioid pain-killers, but Tylenol wasn’t helping enough. Roth was intrigued when women in her online chat group enthused about a cannabis-derived oil called cannabidiol (CBD) that they said relieved pain without making them high. So Roth, who hadn’t smoked weed since college but lived in a state where cannabis was legal, walked into a dispensary and bought a CBD tincture. “Within a few hours of placing the drops in my mouth, the malaise and achiness that had plagued me for weeks lifted and became much more manageable,” she says. She took the drops several times a day and in a few weeks was back to her regular life.
Pedini: Those products aren't required to meet any consumer safety standards. It's still very much a buyer beware marketplace. Unfortunately, study after study is delivering similar findings – what’s on the label isn't necessarily what’s in the bottle. Multiple studies have shown that products often do not contain the amounts of CBD that's on the label. Many have been found to contain adulterants. A VCU study recently found products that contain DXM and melatonin. The belief is that the user wants to feel something when they use the product, so the manufacturer adds an adulterant to produce that sensation.

The 2014 Farm Bill is often cited as evidence that CBD derived from industrial hemp is now legal. But the legislation legalized only a very narrow set of hemp cultivation activities: It is legal to grow hemp under a state pilot program or for academic research. It is also legal to cultivate under state law "in which such institution of higher education or state department of agriculture is located and such research occurs."
CBD Oil can also contain ZERO amount of THC. If this were coffee, it’s all in the grind. It still is, figuratively, for hemp CBD oil. We developed a product from listening to our customers that needed 100% certainty their oil didn’t contain trace amounts of THC. Like who? First responders, athletes, military personnel, or anyone that wants 100% confidence they’re consuming only CBD. Read more about it here.
I started taking CBD oil about 4 weeks ago at the recommendation of a young friend of the family. This friend gets if from a dispensary in LA for his grandmother - 90 yo. She is able to walk again. CBD lessens my pain from fibromyalgia and bad arthritis pretty much everywhere in my body. I went to a health food store and bought some capsules first. They worked mildly. But the tincture in dropper form from the dispensary works much better. It does not affect my sleep. I was taking an opiate daily. Now I only need it maybe every 5 days or so. What could be better than than?!
Pure undiluted cannabis essential oil is a green concentrated, sticky, resinous substance that is considered highly volatile. Its components are very powerful, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other highly active organic compounds. It is extracted by steam distillation from the flowers and upper leaves of cannabis plants, which are in the Cannabis genus. The essential oil is primarily made and distributed from France and various other European countries, but its exportation is somewhat limited by, as mentioned above, the legal ramifications of what cannabis essential oil is derived from.
Inhaling cannabis may involve minor issues due to the combustion process, while using cannabis oil does not result in the same effects since it does not require being heated. Since its benefits can be enjoyed without smoking, the remedy is often considered for children with severe health conditions, like epilepsy. Smokers may want to consider a vaporizer for whole-plant cannabis consumption.
Social work in mental health, also called psychiatric social work, is a process where an individual in a setting is helped to attain freedom from overlapping internal and external problems (social and economic situations, family and other relationships, the physical and organizational environment, psychiatric symptoms, etc.). It aims for harmony, quality of life, self-actualization and personal adaptation across all systems. Psychiatric social workers are mental health professionals that can assist patients and their family members in coping with both mental health issues and various economic or social problems caused by mental illness or psychiatric dysfunctions and to attain improved mental health and well-being. They are vital members of the treatment teams in Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in hospitals. They are employed in both outpatient and inpatient settings of a hospital, nursing homes, state and local governments, substance abuse clinics, correctional facilities, health care services...etc.[84]
Both using cannabis oil and smoking marijuana yield different medical benefits. Smoking cannabis has been useful in treating diseases like glaucoma and nausea. It can be used to alleviate chronic pain and may even help reduce the size or stop the growth of cancer, as well as stop the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Cannabis oil is also used to treat cancer and nausea, but it can also improve sleep, protect the skin, combat stress and anxiety and promote heart health. Both may be used to treat symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), headaches and migraines. They may also be used to combat the symptoms of multiple sclerosis and premenstrual syndrome. Typically, the oil contains concentrated cannabinoid profiles for more potency, but many primarily include cannabidiol (CBD), which does not get people high. For this reason, some states allow children to take advantage of CBD oils for certain illnesses and conditions.
Time and budgetary constraints often limit practicing psychiatrists from conducting more thorough diagnostic evaluations.[81] It has been found that most clinicians evaluate patients using an unstructured, open-ended approach, with limited training in evidence-based assessment methods, and that inaccurate diagnosis may be common in routine practice.[82] In addition, comorbidity is very common in psychiatric diagnosis, where the same person meets the criteria for more than one disorder. On the other hand, a person may have several different difficulties only some of which meet the criteria for being diagnosed. There may be specific problems with accurate diagnosis in developing countries.
A 2013 case report conducted in Canada evaluated the beneficial effects of cannabis oil on a 14-year-old female patient diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, also known as ALL. For this particular patient, a standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. She was extremely ill and severely underweight at this time.
The next big challenge, provided the new bill passes, will be regulation, which leaders in the industry hope they’ll be able to do themselves. Miller told me they’re setting up a self-regulating organization, like other agriculture commodities have, to set best-practice standards and uniform quality control. “This will give consumers assurance that the product is safe, and it gives law enforcement assurance that the product’s legal,” he said.
Hi Mollie, For legal reason we can’t make any type of medical claims, saying that our product will cure or treat any type of medical diagnosis, such as (IBS). Our CBD oil is great for assisting with pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety and sleep. So our product could assist you with stress for sure. The difference between the oil and the drops will be the amount of CBD in each serving, and also how fast you can receive the benefits. The soft gels take longer because they have to be digested, where as the drops are administered under the tongue so it gets into your bloodstream faster.
^ Sellers, R.; Collishaw, S.; Rice, F.; Thapar, A.K.; Potter, R.; Mars, B.; Harold, G.T.; Smith, D.J.; Owen, M.J.; Craddock, N.; Thapar, A. (2012). "Risk of psychopathology in adolescent offspring of mothers with psychopathology and recurrent depression". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 202 (2): 108–14. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.104984. PMID 23060622.
Many a time, multiple cannabinoid compounds are used together, either knowingly or unknowingly.  It is, hence, tough to discern the extent to which each compound is involved in causing the desired effect. There are cases where a group of cannabinoids works synergistically in bringing about bodily reactions. Studies selectively employing CBD oil are few in number, but promising.
“CBD Hemp Oil“ is different than “Cannabis Oil” and may or may not be different than any given CBD Oil.   “Cannabis oil” is from marijuana and can have higher levels of THC, which is what gets someone high.  “CBD Oil” can be from either Hemp or Marijuana.  We only work with hemp products that are legal everywhere in the United States.  So, there is no issue with getting high or having a product that is restricted where you live.
Everything you need to know about marijuana (cannabis) Marijuana, or cannabis, is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. It alters the mood and affects nearly every organ in the body. With at least 120 active compounds, marijuana may have health benefits as well as risks. We describe these, addiction, and withdrawal. Learn more about cannabis here. Read now
Colorado's first and oldest medical cannabis law is a citizens’ initiative called Amendment 20 that amends the state constitution to authorize patients to possess and use medical cannabis and to be assisted by a caregiver. Colorado's second medical cannabis law, the Colorado Medical Marijuana Code (C.R.S. 12-43.3-101 et seq.), was enacted by the legislature in the summer of 2010 to establish a dual licensing mechanism that regulates medical cannabis business at both the state and local level.

Under federal law, cannabis (from which both CBD and marijuana are derived) is illegal everywhere, although the laws against it aren’t generally enforced in states that have legalized marijuana. Some manufacturers claim that CBD culled from legally imported industrial hemp, which has little to no THC, is fine to ship across the U.S., but many experts disagree, noting that because hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, cannabis sativa, all CBD falls under the DEA’s Schedule 1 designation. “This creative interpretation of the law runs afoul of reality,” says the Brookings Institution, a Washington, DC, think tank.
In a recent federal court case, a three-judge panel on the Ninth Circuit sided with the DEA and ruled against the Hemp Industries Association after the agency established a new drug code for “marihuana extract” in 2016. The ruling means that CBD remains a controlled substance. Garrett Graff, the attorney representing the hemp industry in the case, told me that the court opinion did make an exception for Farm Bill hemp, and that it was “not subject to DEA authority,” he said.
Some psychotherapies are based on a humanistic approach. There are a number of specific therapies used for particular disorders, which may be offshoots or hybrids of the above types. Mental health professionals often employ an eclectic or integrative approach. Much may depend on the therapeutic relationship, and there may be problems with trust, confidentiality and engagement.
Mississippi Mississippi allows the use of cannabis extract,s like oil or resin that contains more than 15% CBD and less than 0.5% THC. It also provides affirmative defense for epilepsy patients using the oil to control their condition. CBD oil must be bought at or tested by the National Center for Natural Products Research at the University of Mississippi and dispensed by the Department of Pharmacy Services at the University of Mississippi Medical Center.
Controversy has often surrounded psychiatry, and the term anti-psychiatry was coined by psychiatrist David Cooper in 1967. The anti-psychiatry message is that psychiatric treatments are ultimately more damaging than helpful to patients, and psychiatry's history involves what may now be seen as dangerous treatments.[137] Electroconvulsive therapy was one of these, which was used widely between the 1930s and 1960s. Lobotomy was another practice that was ultimately seen as too invasive and brutal. Diazepam and other sedatives were sometimes over-prescribed, which led to an epidemic of dependence. There was also concern about the large increase in prescribing psychiatric drugs for children. Some charismatic psychiatrists came to personify the movement against psychiatry. The most influential of these was R.D. Laing who wrote a series of best-selling books, including The Divided Self. Thomas Szasz wrote The Myth of Mental Illness. Some ex-patient groups have become militantly anti-psychiatric, often referring to themselves as "survivors".[137] Giorgio Antonucci has questioned the basis of psychiatry through his work on the dismantling of two psychiatric hospitals (in the city of Imola), carried out from 1973 to 1996.
According to the U.K. surgeon general (1999), mental health is the successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and providing the ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity. The term mental illness refers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders—health conditions characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior associated with distress or impaired functioning.[5]
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